The Independent Newsweekly
Issue Date: April 11, 2003
U.S., Arab TV each tell only half the story
On either side, news of Iraq war colored by biases, manipulation
By RAMI G. KHOURI
To fully understand this war and its consequences, it is necessary to watch both Arab and American television.
For different reasons, Arab and American broadcasters provide a distorted, incomplete picture of the war in Iraq -- while accurately reflecting emotional and political sentiments on both sides.
Every day I scan through 20 different Arab and American TV services. This is a painful exercise, because the business of reporting and interpreting the serious news of war has been transformed into a mishmash of emotional cheerleading, expressions of primordial tribal and national identities, overt ideological manipulation by governments and crass commercial pandering to the masses in pursuit of audience share and advertising dollars.
American television tends to go heavy on the symbols of patriotism. American flags flutter as part of on-screen logos or backdrops, while emotional collages of war photos are used liberally at transitions between live reporting and advertising breaks. American TV tends to reflect the pro-war sentiments of the government and many in society. You see and hear it in the tone of most anchors and hosts; the endless showcasing of Americas weapons technology; the preponderance of ex-military men and women guests; the choice to rarely show Iraqi civilian casualties, but highlight U.S. troops humanitarian assistance to Iraqis; and reporters and hosts use of value-laden and simplistic expressions like the good guys to refer to American troops.
The most unfortunate and professionally disgraceful aspect of U.S. television coverage, in my view, has been the widespread assumption that Iraqis would offer no resistance and would welcome the American army with open arms. Some Iraqis will surely do so, but most people in this region now see the Americans as an invading force that will become an occupying force. The American media reflects widespread American ignorance about what it means to have your country invaded, occupied, administered and retooled in someone elses image.
Americans know that their impressive military strength will eventually prevail on the battlefield, yet they appear totally and bafflingly oblivious to the visceral workings of nationalism and national identity. I have seen no appreciation whatsoever in America for the fact that while Iraqis generally may dislike their vicious and violent Iraqi regime, the average Iraqi and Arab has a much older, stronger and more recurring fear of armies that come into their lands from the West carrying political promises and bags of rice.
Arab television channels display virtually identical biases and omissions, including: heavy relying on film of the worst Iraqi civilian casualties; interviews with guests who tend to be critical of the United States; hosts and anchors who jump to debate rather than interview American guests; taking Iraqi and other Arab government statements at face value with little probing into their accuracy; and highlighting the setbacks to the attacking Anglo-American forces, including showing film of captured or dead troops.
We in the Arab world are slightly better off than most Americans, because we can see and hear both sides, given the easy availability of American satellite channels throughout this region. Most Americans do not have easy access to Arab television reports, and even if they did they would need to know Arabic to grasp the full picture.
Two days ago, I better understood the need to see images from both sides. Arab television stations showed pictures of dead and captured American troops, many of which were eventually shown on American television. But Arab channels the same day also showed a horrifying picture that did not get into American TV: a small Iraqi child who had died during an American attack, with the back of the childs head missing. The picture was as gut wrenching and disgusting to Arabs as the pictures of the dead Americans were to Americans.
You had to see both images simultaneously that day to fully grasp the three most important dimensions of this conflict, in my view: one, the terrible tragedy of human loss and suffering on both sides; two, that this was a deliberately chosen American war that could and should have been avoided; and, finally, that we have only started to witness the human, economic and political costs that will be paid by many people and countries before this adventure plays itself out.
If youre getting your news and views from either Arab or American television, youre getting only half the story.
Rami G. Khouri is a political scientist and executive editor of the Daily Star in Beirut, Lebanon.
National Catholic Reporter, April 11, 2003
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